Two same-sex couples challenged the Missouri laws that limited marriage to opposite-sex couples. In November 2014, the trial court ruled that Missouri had unconstitutionally denied the fundamental right to marry to same-sex couples.
In March 2012, the Gay & Lesbian Services Organization of Lexington, Kentucky sought to purchase t-shirts from Hands on Originals, a local, for-profit, screen-printing shop. GLSO wanted to have the words “Lexington Pride Festival” and a multi-colored numeral “5” printed on the shirts (the shirts were for the locality’s fifth annual Pride Festival). HOO’s owner, upon learning what the Pride Festival represented, refused to serve the GLSO.
In the 1960s, the City of Grand Haven erected a display pole on a large, publicly-owned sand dune overlooking the City’s waterfront. The pole could be raised or lowered as needed, and it could be fitted with either an anchor or a cross feature. The City equipped the pole with the cross feature both on its own initiative—for example, to celebrate the Christmas season—and at the request of City residents, who could pay a fee to use the cross as a backdrop for events on the waterfront. No other monuments were allowed on the sand dune.
In September 2012, a same-sex couple attempted to book their wedding at Liberty Ridge Farms—a rustic event space in upstate New York. The farm’s owners refused to rent the venue to the couple, saying that same-sex marriages are “not what we wanted to have on the farm.” The couple filed a complaint with the New York State Division of Human Rights, alleging that the owners of the venue illegally discriminated against them based on their sexual orientation.
Two same-sex couples challenged the Arkansas marriage laws that limited marriage to between a man and a woman. In November 2014, the trial court struck down these laws as an unconstitutional violation of same-sex couples’ fundamental right to marry.
In March 2013, Robert Ingersoll sought to buy flower arrangements for his wedding from his favorite florist, Arlene’s Flowers, which is a for-profit florist shop. The store’s owner informed him that she would not serve him on this occasion, because she believed Ingersoll’s marriage to a man was a sin.
In June 2015, the Nevada governor signed into law S.B. 302, which created the Education Savings Account Program. Through the program, parents may receive money from the state's public-school fund, which is deposited into an Education Savings Account, to pay for their child's education at a religious private school. Once the private school receives this funding, there are no prohibitions on how the public funds may be used, meaning that private schools are free to use these funds for religious instruction.
As part of the Affordable Care Act's implementing regulations, group health plans are required to include coverage for various forms of preventative care, including all FDA-approved methods of contraception. Houses of worship are exempt from these requirements, and the Department of Health and Human Services later created a broader accommodation for certain nonprofit organizations.